Scientific References

1Jensen M, Brant-Zawadzki M, Obuchowski N, et al. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lumbar Spine in People Without Back Pain. N Engl J Med 1994; 331: 69-116. Retrieved via

2Fine, P.G., MD. Long-Term Consequences of Chronic Pain: Mounting Evidence for Pain as a Neurological Disease and Parallels with Other Chronic Disease States. Pain Medicine 12.7 (2011): 996-1004. Retrieved from

3National Institutes of Health. Low Back Pain Fact Sheet. Retrieved from

4Kovacs, F.M., et al. Effect of firmness of mattress on chronic non-specific low-back pain: randomised, double-blind, controlled, multicentre trial. Lancet 362.9396 (2003): 1599-1604. Retrieved from

5MedlinePlus. Low back pain – chronic. Retrieved from

6American Psychological Association. Stress effects on the body. Retrieved from

7Pillay, Srini, MD. The psychology of low back pain. Harvard Health Publishing: Harvard Health Blog (2016, Apr. 25). Retrieved from

8Chou, R, MD., et al. Diagnosis and Treatment of Low Back Pain: A Joint Clinical Practice Guideline from the American College of Physicians and the American Pain Society. Annals of Internal Medicine 147.7 (2007): 478-491. Retrieved from

9Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Understanding the Epidemic. Retrieved from

10Krebs, E.E., MD, MPH, et al. Effect of Opioid vs Nonopioid Medications on Pain-Related Function in Patients With Chronic Back Pain or Hip or Knee Osteoarthritis Pain. Journal of American Medical Association 319.9 (2018): 872-882. Retrieved from

11Zhang, Ting-Ting, et al. Obesity as a Risk Factor for Low Back Pain: A Meta-Analysis. Clinical Spine Surgery 31.1 (2018): 22-27. Retrieved from

12Shiri, R., et al. The Association Between Obesity and Low Back Pain: A Meta-Analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology 171.2 (2010): 135-154. Retrieved from

13Frilander, H., et al. Role of overweight and obesity in low back disorders among men: a longitudinal study with a life course approach. BMJ Open 5.8 (2015). Retrieved from

14Hoy, D, et al. The global burden of low back pain: estimates from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 73.6 (2014): 968-974. Retrieved from

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